The first major challenge to face the Bureau was the Civil War, when the number of medical officers nearly quadrupled and hospitals at Boston, Philadelphia, New York and Washington DC opened in older facilities or enlarged, and temporary hospitals sprung into existence in New Bern, NC, Beaufort and Port Royal South Carolina and Pensacola. The Naval Hospital at Norfolk, VA, lost to the Confederates early in the war, reopened for Union forces upon its recapture in 1862. Other hospitals opened in Mound City, Illinois (later moved to Memphis) and New Orleans. The first Navy hospital ship–the Red Rover–saw service to Naval forces on the Mississippi. In addition, Bureau Chief William Whelan established the Naval Laboratory in Brooklyn, under the direction of Surgeon Benjamin Bache and Edward R Squibb. Squibb was responsible for creating a system for producing medicaments of reliable quality.